如果時間是穿戴且摺疊的
If Time Was Wearable And Foldable


展覽專輯柏克萊購買 purchase link


未來工藝的社群想像:如果時間是穿戴且折疊的⸺天然纖維與雷射染合作展


「如果時間是穿戴且折疊的」-天然纖維與雷射染跨域合作創新展以雷射染計畫為載體,將科技和數位製 造帶入工藝社群的實驗展覽,透過不同領域的結合與應用,重新建構天然纖維與染色的多元可能性。

本次展覽不只是一個跨域藝術計劃,更是一個獨立創作計劃受益於社群合作的展現。啟發自傳統的氰版顯影,雷射染是一項結合數 位製造、程式碼藝術、顯影工藝在天然纖維上留下永久的具有階度的藍色影像的實驗織品計劃。此次工藝中心以實驗展形式結合雷 射染和天然纖維染色工藝合作,展品包含數件印花裝置、雷射染意象裝置、雷射染計劃結合天然染色、農廢材料如鳳梨纖維、構樹皮 等實驗性嘗試的紀錄;展覽實驗內容涵括氰版顯影與植物染料的互補性,程式碼藝術在染色工藝中的展現,藉由介紹雷射染計畫所 參與的諸多國際交流和計畫遊牧的軌跡,描繪未來工藝和其他社群合作,即將形成的一個介面網絡想像。

本次展品中有數幅作品在雷射染印花上疊染天然染料,利用氰版顯影和植物染料皆適用於天然纖維之特性,先使氰版成品在鹼液 中褪色、再找出能與之疊染之植物染料進行覆染。經過數次覆染後,原本的印花經由與染液的酸鹼屬性的交互作用而產生色澤異變 和邊界模糊,一如跨領域合作中時常產生的不可預測之結果。

因應連結國際社群主題,策展單位邀請了雷射染計畫曾經參與過的國際社群:來自紐約電子織品社群e-Textile Spring Break的 織品藝術家維多利亞(Victoria Manganiello)和由日籍藝術家的大山龍(Ryu Oyama)和韓籍藝術家的金伊爾達(Ilda Kim)組 成的團體ISC舉辦跨領域講座和工作坊並開放民眾參與。維多利亞的講座以「改變工藝社區」為題,探討互聯聯網時代的工藝社群 變遷和女性賦權趨勢;她在工作坊中介紹以數據資料作為手工編織的概念依據,帶領參與者將二進制代碼轉換為編織符碼。雙人藝 術團體ISC也帶來表演形式的工作坊,結合演說和米粥服務探討實質和抽象、有形與無形及可見和不可見的相反極端,並以不同視 角重新定義「邊界」的含義,就跨社群邊界為題向參與者發起討論。





A Vision For The Future Crafts Communities


“If Time Was Wearable and Foldable”- The collaborative exhibition involving natural fibers and laser dye, not only is a transdisciplinary art project, but also an independent creative project that benefits from community collaboration. Inspired by the traditional cyanotype photography process, Laser Dye is an experimental textile project that combines digital fabrication, code art and alternative photography process to create permanent images of various shades of cyan on natural fibers. The artworks from the exhibition that resulted from this collaboration with the National Taiwan Craftsmanship Research Institution included several printed textile installations, live printing installations inthe Laser Dye Project, prototypes processed with cyanotype and natu- ral dyes, and documentation works from experimenting with agricultural waste materials such as pineapple fibers, and paper mulberry. The content of the experimental works indicates the complementarity between the Laser Dye Project and the natural dyes, and the expression of code art in the dyeing craftsmanship. Furthermore, by introducing international exchanges and nomadic projects involved in the Laser Dye Project over years, and depicting the future of craftsmanship and cooperation with other communities, an imaginary interface network is about to be formed.

Several pieces in this exhibition are dyed repeatedly with natural dyes and cyanotype. Firstly, the finished cyano- type textile fades in the alkaline solution and then its dyed again with suitable natural dyes. After several cycles of this dyeing sequences, a creative toning result is built. It produces variability in colors and blurry borders between colors, as like the interaction in-between transdisciplinary projects. unpredictable result is usually expected.



  
Mark LOREM IPSUM

量子的編織測光計
The Woven Actinometer for Quantum


考古學家齊格弗里德齊林斯基將「想像的媒體」區分為三類,第一類是「不合時宜的媒體/裝置/機器」,指的 是被設計得太早或太遲的媒體,但終在某一時間點上已然實現;第二類是「構思中的媒體/裝置/機器」,只存於構想之中從未真正付諸實現的媒體;第三類「不可能 的媒體/裝置/機器」是指不能夠實現的媒體機器,卻對我們的思維有重要影響。

Archeologist Siegfried Zielinski distinguishes "imagined media" into three categories. The first category is "untimely media", which refers to being designed. Media that is too early or too late, but it has been realized at a certain point in time; the second category is "conceptual media", which is only in the con- cept and has never really been put into prac- tice Realized media; the third is "impossible media" refers to media equipment that cannot be realized, but it has an important impact on our thinking.



一個科幻的未來機器


草酸鐵鉀是一個古老化學測光計(actinometer)的主要成份,這個測光計同樣也是氰版發明者約翰.赫歇爾在1825年的發明,他創造了「actinometer」這個詞,其字根actino在拉丁文中指的是光束的意思,具體的應用曾有科學家利用結合測光計和氣壓計的 方式,推算出在紅光下,植物透過光合作用將光量子轉換成氧分子的具體數量。

在製造新氰版感光液的過程裡,從冷卻加熱過後的鐵氰化鉀和草酸鐵銨混合液過程中,析出了許多帶有美麗翠綠色的草酸鐵鉀晶 體,這些晶體並不被使用在實驗中的新氰版顯影中。雖然此晶體可以再透過混合醋酸和鐵氰化鉀再被使用來製造普魯士藍,但因 為其相對容易製造和塑形的特性,所以有了收集實驗剩餘的草酸鐵鉀結晶來製作這此展覽中的水晶圓盤裝置的想法。草酸鐵鉀晶 體可以被重複的丟入下次製備的鐵氰化鉀和草酸鐵銨的加熱混合液中,使晶體體積繼續增長,完成的晶體也可以用接近沸騰的蒸 餾水溶解,然後透過冷卻並重新結晶化。在這件展品製作過程中我們將玻璃圓盤的週邊以膠帶封住,再注入製作過程中尚未冷卻 的感光液,使其在玻璃上冷卻並析出草酸鐵鉀晶體,待晶體和玻璃牢固的結合後,再將圓盤立起。晶體在冷卻中結晶化的時間約24 小時,冷卻時間與晶體的物理形狀有關,降溫時間越久所結成的晶體越大。

一篇在OATAO開源論文網站上的論文顯示,在當代一些關於改良偵測光子數量技術的研究,仍然涉及利用這種早期草酸鐵鉀測光 計的原理,且這些研究是在微米尺寸下進行的而不是奈米,這意味著DIY技術涉入的可能性。這些微米結構在流體動力學上的設計 使用了被注入草酸鐵鉀溶液的撓曲微米小管,並將其曝照在紫外線下,透過量測小管內草酸鐵鉀溶液濃度的變化,便能精準量測 這些微米小管所偵測到的光子數量。這篇研究報告的迷人之處在於,類似編織的技巧被利用在微米科學研究中,是為了增加補捉 光子的準確度,以增進學術上科學家對於量子產率的了解。這已足夠使人連想到一個科幻的工藝裝置,以及一個工藝社群和量子科學、材料研究之間的潛在連結。

工藝和科學的合作對我們從來都不是陌生的,著名的約瑟夫·瑪麗·雅卡爾(Joseph Marie Charles)所設計的提花織機,其自動系統利用紋紙上的孔洞排列來控制提花織機的機械運動,促進了人類史上第一台電腦的發明。阿波羅十一號登月時所使用的磁心線 記憶體(core rope memory)利用編織的技巧和磁氣的原理,設計出人類登月艙上的第一代記憶體系統。這些曾經是高科技的古 老媒體都展示了科技和工藝的連結,並曾經巨大的改變了我們的生活。轉身回顧這些歷史,並理解這些媒體如何的曾經或即將形 塑我們的世界,隨著進入由技術和物質所開創的人類世的尾聲,站在「古典現代」巔峰的我們,又如何藉由重新省視過去以重塑我們的未來?



Concept graphics of laser dye: generative pattern made in Max/msp analog the growing of the potassium ferrioxalate crystal
Concept graphics of laser dye: generative pattern made in Max/msp analog the growing of the potassium ferrioxalate crystal


A Futuristic Imaginary Machine


Potassium ferrioxalate is the main chemical component of an old chemical photometer called“actinometer”. This photometer was invented in 1825 by the inventor of cyanotype, John Herschel. The prefix“actin”in Latin means “ray”, and the actinometer is the first scientific instrument named with this prefix. One of many applications of actinometer, in combination with a barometer, is to calculate the amount of photons that plants convert into

In the process of preparing the New Cyanotype solution, many crystals of potassium ferrioxalate with beautiful emerald green color were formed as a byproduct, which were not used in the exposure process at first. Although the crystals can be reused to make Prussian blue by mixing acetic acid and potassium ferricyanide afterwards. Because of its easy production and molding characteristics, the idea of building an installation made of this crystal for this exhibition emerged. The potassium ferrioxalate crystals can be repeatedly recrystallized with the new sensitizer making process. They can also be dissolved in distilled water with ~100ºC and be put into any shape of glass for molding. We taped the periphery of the glass disc and placed it flat, poured the hot New Cyanotype sensi- tizer inside it in a dark place for the crystallization, and then erected the disc vertically after 48 hours to make sure that the crystals would bond to the glass surface perfectly. The cooling duration affects the physical shape of the crystal, the longer the cooling time is, the larger the crystal becomes.

A paper from 2014 found on OATAO, an open access repository, indicates that in some contemporary researches about improving microreactor technology for detecting photon flux (how many photos are initially from the light source) still involves the principle of this ancient actinometer and the potassium ferrioxalate solution. These stud- ies are conducted in the micron scale rather than nano scale, which suggests the possibility of DIY at home. Next is the hydrodynamic design of these microreactors; the potassium ferrioxalate solution is injected into a winding micro-tubes and exposed under ultraviolet rays, and by measuring the change in the concentration of the solution, the photon flux captured by these micro-tubes can be accurately calculated.

What is fascinating is that the weaving-like techniques are employed in this micron scientific research. Since the microreactors are being made for the purpose to improve academic scientists' understanding of quantum yield, this creates an imagination of a fictional craft, a link between the craftsmanship community and quantum science.

The collaboration between craftsmanship and science was never strange to us. Joseph Marie Charles invented an automatic system that uses punch card to control the mechanical movement of a jacquard loom to weave complex textile patterns. This invention facilitated the invention of the first computer in human history. The core rope memory used in Apollo 13 project employed the principle of combining weaving and magnetism, and it became the first generation memory system. Both of these inventions have changed our lives tremendously. Looking back to these history and realizing how our world is built by these technologies, as we are entering the end of an anthro- pocentric era while standing at the pinnacle of "classical modernity", what more could we do to invent our future by altering our review of the past?



production process photos

 

如果可以穿上摺疊的時間 If Time Was Wearable And Foldable




這是一項源自雷射染計劃,與服裝設計師陳翊羽的時尚研究:如何實時生產印花在縫製好的服裝上。該原型是為 2019 年 3 月亞洲國際領先的設計博覽會 Design Shaghai 製作的。這種折疊的紡織塊預塗佈好氰版顯影液,然後在程序化的雷射運動下曝光,以在服裝上形成圖像。以110x100 cm的成品為例,顯影過程需要2小時加上1小時的清水沖洗,最終完成。

This is an research for fashion devived  from the Laser Dye project, a collaboration with Yiyu Chen: how to produce generative pattern on garment after the garment is made. This prototype was made for Design Shaghai in March 2019, an Asian international leading desgin expo. This folded textile block which was pre-coated with cyanotype ink and then it was exposured under a programed laser light motion to get the image formed onto the garment. Total development process takes 2 hours plus 1 hour rinse in clean water, for a piece in size of 110x110 cm, the final piece is completed. 

陳翊羽.服裝設計師

從開始接觸天然染、手織到參與雷射染計畫,我對於設計的方法和想法也有很多改變。在接觸和執行了染色及初始材質處理的過程中,因為這些手工過程相對於直接使用大量生產的材料有更多在技術未臻熟練前不可掌握的因子,剛開始的成品總是難以達到預想中的效果或難以預測每個階段的產出品質。對比於過去使用熟悉的材料(工業生產的布料)和傳統服裝製作技術的設計過程,使用這些天然纖維、小量手工染色,會迫使我採取較開放的設計流程和對不可控成果的包容性。這當中包括從構想設計、打版和處理服裝縫製工序等等事前準備:因為可預期在後期染色會有意料之外的結果,從一開始的設計階段就需要考量到染色時可能的情況, 將款式設計成能夠平放的結構;或是在縫製時,需要因應接下來染色過程需求而避免例如膠襯、牽條、重疊過多布料等作法。也因此在服裝結構上受到限制,可能需要不同於一般服裝縫製流程的處理方式。

對比於先預想了成品外觀再反推製作方式,而最終得出接近想像中成品的設計過程,需要處理材料及染色的作品會因為製作方式 限制而影響最終設計,在製作過程中也會因為產生變數而僅能作出「盡可能接近預期」的選擇。雖然過去的作品也有許多手工刺繡或細節縫製,但在我的主觀感受裡,越是涉入更多材料開發,而增加流程上變數的同時,「從設計到產出」這個從思考到執行的結構,會解離成更片段卻相互緊密連結的經驗。同時身為設計者和製作者的我雖然包辦整個過程,但在過去是從設計到打版、進而 車縫樣品、檢驗成果並輸出成品:如同分離了我這個人的不同功能,在大量生產流水線的每個勞動工作職種上轉換。然而當變數增加、每個階段都必須做出調整時,我在各個流程中都沒有完整的掌控性,需要隨時和「發揮另外一個功能的我」進行協商。

在我過去的設計教育和產業知識裡,每個服裝製作過程都是切割開的,以方便不同功能的勞動者間能有明確的職掌分野和溝通流向,而這樣的角色分配也造就出了產業裡的階級結構⸺如設計師 / 工廠管理者普遍被認為比操作單純步驟的製造工人擁有更多 權力。之所以會有這樣的結構模板,是因為現行的成衣工業利用世界上不同地區的勞動條件和人力成本,將服裝製作的過程拆分為每個職位不同的職掌,以方便在生產過程中,以最低的成本生產出最大量的成品。在掌握全球化大眾主流審美的文化輸出國進行設計、土地成本低的地區生產原料、人力成本低的國家進行縫製-這樣的產業結構反映在提供勞動人才的設計教育單位中,就是將整個設計製造流程所需的功能拆散在不同的課堂裡。像我這樣在學校裡認識並學習服裝的人,也就不知不覺地將產業裡現有的生產結構帶入自己的思考方式裡了。確實以商業性考量來說,工作職掌的分割對於效率和人力資源的分配不可或缺,也是在考量任何成品商業化的可能時必須面對的問題;但如果針對設計方法來探討的話,我覺得認知到自身的設計思考被產業結構所制衡這點相當重要。個人認為也是當代設計師在面對產業結構變化時能夠努力的方向和破口。

從二千年初期開始認識服裝設計、進入學校並進而以設計為業,在這段同時也是網路由新興至普及的時間裡,理解到時尚的概念本身也在快速的流變。現今的服裝產業因應當代社會逐漸民主化、分眾化、多元性和對地區性文化越加重視的趨勢而開始有結構性上的改變。在強調奢華和精細工藝堆砌出極具戲劇張力的華服的時代,塑造時尚的核心概念建構於排外和有限制的觸及率;藉由造就神秘感、稀有性和權威性的方式將擁有特定服裝作為彰顯社會階級的符碼。然而在多元文化價值逐漸取代單一故事的趨勢下,大眾更傾向追尋以服裝凸顯個人選擇和族群認同(地域的、文化的或是價值認同的),過去以歐美白人文化為中心的主流審美逐漸被拆分為無數沒有高低之分的多角度敘事;在話語權分散的同時,時尚也逐漸失去其以排外本質造就的稀有性和威權性。

當大眾更希望服裝符碼能彰顯個人思考和價值選擇時,能夠體現出多重故事性或能和個人產生經驗連結的產品比起大量生產的成衣更吸引人。將金錢投資在購買無論是旅遊、學習、感受或人際交流的「經驗」成為新的消費趨勢,服裝價值也逐漸從體現經濟能力 、權力掌控轉變為展現獨立思考和與其擁有者間的私密連結。在這樣的趨勢下,手工藝(crafting,同時可以是由工匠實現的作品或如DIY等手工製作的作品)因其生產過程為產品價值的一部分,能夠在經驗體驗上比起消費型產品更為深刻;無論是由親手學習製 作的作品、投入時間了解其文化價值的工藝品、或代表特定族群連結的共作成品-將單純的金錢交易行為轉變為體現個人價值觀的消費選擇,能使擁有者和物品間的關係脫離單純的物質佔有層面⸺對於追求和產品間的情感認同經驗的當代消費者而言也會是更有意義的選擇。

體認到產業正在轉型的徬徨感促使我尋求和服裝的本質更為貼近的途徑和立足點。如同大環境的時尚權力核心由單一軸線轉化為多重敘述而未定型的多層次結構,我也試圖重新審視自身對於服裝設計、對於自己身為服裝設計師這身份的認知框架:在這個生產過度、資訊過量而空虛感滿溢的時代裡,未來的服裝應該要往哪個方向走呢?在創造慾望、刺激消費之外,時尚作為個體間的溝通途徑和映照社會狀態的顯像,能不能在「服裝」這個實質產品外,為人們、歷史或環境創造別的循環?期待能夠看到這些未知逐漸變化,對我而言,就是繼續在這裡的原因。

Since the beginning of my exposure to natural dyeing and hand-knitting until my participation in the laser dyeing project, there has been great changes in my design methods and ideas. In the process of performing the dyeing and handling the initial material processing, due to the involvement of more unpredictable factors in these manual processes in comparison to the direct use of mass-produced materials, it is often more difficult to achieve the expected effect in the finished product from the beginning, or it may be difficult to predict the output quality from each stage.

Compared to past design process using familiar materials (industrially produced textiles) and traditional clothing manufacturing techniques, using these natural fibers and a small amount of hand dyeing forces me to adopt a more open design process and to be more tolerant for uncontrollable results. This includes preparations in concept design, pattern-making, and handling of sewing processes, among others. Because of the likelihood that the dyeing will have unexpected results in the later stage, it is necessary to consider the possible circumstances that will appear during dyeing since the beginning of the design stage, and design the style in a structure for it to be able to lay flat. Or when sewing, it is necessary to consider the requirements for the dyeing process in order to avoid practices such as rubber lining, strips stretching, and excessive fabric overlapping, etc. Therefore, the struc- ture of the garment becomes limited or it requires a different treatment method from the general garment sewing process.

In contrast to the design process that first anticipates the appearance of the finished product and then reverses the production method, and then finally comes close to the imagined finished product, the kind of work that needs its materials to be processed and dyed has its final design affected due to the limitation of the production method. During its production, I can only make choices that are "as close to expectations as possible" due to the variables during the production process. Although my past works also involved a good amount of hand embroidery or details to sew, in my subjective experience, the more involvement in the development of materials and the more variables in the process, 'from design to output', the structure from thinking to execution will dissociate into more fragmented but closely connected experiences.


As a designer and producer, although I arranged the whole process, in the past, from design to pattern making, sewing samples, inspecting results up until the output of finished products, it was as though I was separating different functions from myself, own and mass production lines. Each type of job in the mass production line is converted; however, when the variables increase and adjustments must be made at each stage, I do not have com- plete control in each process, and I need to negotiate with "my other self who plays another function" at any moment.

In my past design education and industrial knowledge, each garment production process is cut to facilitate clear job division and communication flow among workers with different functions. Such role allocation also creates class structure in the industry (such as designers / factory managers are generally considered to have more power than manufacturing workers who operate simple steps). The reason for such a structural template is that the current garment industry uses labor conditions and labor costs in different regions of the world to split the garment production process into different positions in order to achieve the lowest production costs while produc- ing the largest amount of finished products.

Design in a cultural exporting country that masters the mainstream aesthetics of the globalized masses, produce raw materials in areas with low land costs, and sew in countries with low labor costs-such an industrial structure is reflected in the provision of labor talent is designed amidst an education unit, where the functions required for the entire design and manufacturing process are dismantled in different classrooms. People like me who get to know and learn clothing in school will unconsciously bring the existing production structure in the industry into my own way of thinking.

Indeed, in terms of commercial considerations, the division of job functions is indispensable for efficiency and the allocation of human resources. It is also a problem that must be faced when considering the commercializa- tion of any finished product; but if we discuss the design method, I think It is very important to recognize that one's own design thinking is restricted by the industrial fashion structure. Personally, I think it is also the direc- tion and breach that allows contemporary designers to work hard towards to in the face of changes in the industri- al structure.









The first prototype




這是第一個在服裝上應用激光染料的照相排版。 這個概念只是設計一種可折疊的連衣裙,以便一次性完成曝光。 此方片預塗了感光溶液,然後掛在牆上做雷射曝光。
This was the first phototype to apply laser dye on a garment. The concept was simply to design a foldable dress in order to get the light exposure done in one time. This square piece was firstly coated with photosensitive solution and then was hanged onto the wall for laser exposure.


The embroidery prototype


我們還對成品繡片進行了測試,整片是由棉布製成的,在凹凸不平的表面上的投影效果令人滿意。
We also made a test on finished embroidery piece, the whole piece was made of cotten, the projection brought satisfying result on the uneven surface.



服裝:陳奕羽 / Garment Design: Yiyu Chen 攝影:羅柏麟 / Photography: Bo-Lin Lo




原型 Prototypes


這是用其他天然染料植物染色的雷射染的結果。 附註表示了參與染色過成的染料,名稱按染色順序排列。這些順序之所以重要是因為各種染料的PH性質會造成染料彼此的漂白作用。
Here are results of the laser dye pieces dyed with other natural dye plants. The captions indicates the natural dye participated in the process, names in dyeing order. The dyeing order matters due to the PH property of each dyes may cause the bleaching to each other.




雷射光源和控制板Laser source and control boards


以下展示了雷射控制板原型。 我不使用 ILDA,所以我找到了一種方法來跳過 ILDA 並通過純模擬音頻信號驅動雷射圖形。 下面是我為電壓偏移製作的一些簡單的電壓放大器,和參與雷射染顯影所使用的405nm 雷射光源。
Here are some demostration of the prototypings of the laser board controls. I don’t use ILDA, so I found a way to skip the ILDA and drive the laser graphic by pure analog audio signals. Here are some simple opamp boards I made for voltage shifting and the 405nm laser source participated in the exposure process. 


草酸鐵鉀裝置 Ferryoxalte installation


在展覽製作中,我發現這些由 Mike Ware 發明的 New Cyanotype 配方中遺留下來的綠色晶體在製作美麗雕塑的潛力方面非常有趣。 我曾嘗試在培養皿和天然纖維(比如像是苧麻)中形成它,最終我們在展覽中製作了一塊直徑 3 米的大水晶盤子。 晶體可以通過一些適當的程序用溫水融化,重新用作光敏劑。
In the production of the exhibition I found these crystals leftover from the New Cyanotype formula invented by Mike Ware very intereting in its potential to make beautiful sculpture. I have tried to form it in the petri-dish and natural fiber, such as ramie, eventually we made a big plate of crystal in the exhibition 3 meters in diameter. The crystal can be reused as photosensitizer by melting it with warm water with some proper procedures.